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, commonly distributed mineral of lots of ranges that consists mostly of silica, or silicon dioxide (Si, O2). Minor impurities such as lithium, sodium, potassium, and titanium may be present. Quartz has actually attracted attention from the earliest times; water-clear crystals were known to the ancient Greeks as krystalloshence the name crystal, or more commonly rock crystal, applied to this variety. The name quartz is an old German word of uncertain origin initially utilized by Georgius Agricola in 1530. Quartz. Index Open, A brief treatment of quartz follows. For complete treatment, see silica mineral. Quartz has excellent financial importance. Lots of varieties are gemstones, including amethyst, citrine, smoky quartz, and increased quartz.
Big amounts of quartz sand (also understood as silica sand) are used in the manufacture of glass and ceramics and for foundry molds in metal casting. Squashed quartz is used as an abrasive in sandpaper, silica sand is utilized in sandblasting, and sandstone is still utilized entire to make whetstones, millstones, and grindstones. Silica glass (likewise called merged quartz) is used in optics to transmit ultraviolet light. Tubing and various vessels of merged quartz have essential laboratory applications, and quartz fibers are employed in incredibly sensitive weighing devices. Quartz is the 2nd most plentiful mineral in Earth’s crust after feldspar.
It is a necessary mineral in such silica-rich felsic rocks as granites, granodiorites, and rhyolites. It is extremely resistant to weathering and tends to focus in sandstones and other detrital rocks. Secondary quartz works as a cement in sedimentary rocks of this kind, forming overgrowths on detrital grains. Microcrystalline ranges of silica referred to as chert, flint, agate, and jasper include a great network of quartz. Metamorphism of quartz-bearing igneous and sedimentary rocks generally increases the amount of quartz and its grain size. Quartz with hematite inclusions, from Denny Mountain, King county, Washington, U.S.Photograph by Sandy Grimm. Houston Museum of Life Sciences Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive material.
The 2 are carefully associated, with only little movements of their constituent atoms throughout the alpha-beta shift. The structure of beta-quartz is hexagonal, with either a left- or right-handed balance group similarly populated in crystals. The structure of alpha-quartz is trigonal, once again with either a right- or left-handed symmetry group. At the transition temperature level the tetrahedral structure of beta-quartz twists, resulting in the symmetry of alpha-quartz; atoms move from special space group positions to more general positions. At temperature levels above 867 C (1,593 F), beta-quartz changes into tridymite, but the change is extremely slow due to the fact that bond breaking takes location to form a more open structure.
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Such phases have been observed in effect craters. Quartz from Hot Springs, Ark., U.S.Photograph by Sandy Grimm. Houston Museum of Life Sciences, 2004. 1700.0 Quartz is piezoelectric: a crystal develops favorable and unfavorable charges on alternate prism edges when it is subjected to pressure or stress. The charges are proportional to the change in pressure. Since of its piezoelectric residential or commercial property, a quartz plate can be used as a pressure gauge, as in depth-sounding device. Simply as compression and stress produce opposite charges, the converse effect is that rotating opposite charges will cause alternating growth and contraction. An area cut from a quartz crystal with certain orientation and measurements has a natural frequency of this expansion and contraction (i.